Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are entirely missing from Gregg; there’s absolutely no sound for “c” besides those currently represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you will find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a mix of letters within the Roman alphabet, but could each be written by having a solitary page in Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six symbols that are complex as well as seven quick ligatures, is rendered with two brief shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even more, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to arrive at the phonetic nugget regarding the word: “bed” is written as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another ten percent associated with time that is note-taker’s.
However the biggest effect from Gregg shorthand arises from its systematic way of abbreviation. For example, virtually every page in Gregg, compiled by it self, represents a word that is common. Most are useful for a few various terms, with respect to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can suggest “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it” or “at.” In this manner, almost 100 of the very most common terms in English may be rendered in a single swing. Similarly, most typical English terms have actually a spelling that is abbreviated of or two shots. The elegant Gregg form of “b-r,” for example, is quick for “bring” and it is printed in an immediate. Right right Here it really is once again:
And, since 60 % of talked English is made up of about 600 of those typical terms, brief forms play a role that is huge accelerating Gregg. “Brief type” is obviously a technical term in Gregg. Anybody can discover the Gregg alphabet in time and most likely increase their speed that is writing to be certainly fast—like the rest of the number of Gregg-powered court reporters into the federal courts whom defeat testimony at significantly more than 200 terms per minute—you need certainly to memorize dozens or a huge selection of typical abbreviations.
That sounds hard until such time you understand that the head is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, nearly all of that you learned naturally while you required them. Gregg is not any various. While the Gregg variations have reached minimum more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.
However the form that is brief significantly more than a straightforward abbreviation, it is the distillation associated with fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose a lot more than is important to comprehend it later on. By using this concept, huge number of long, Latinate terms are reduced to 3 or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief types were particularly important in the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been additionally epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One specially fertile method of abbreviation in Gregg could be the utilization of solitary letters as stand-ins for common prefixes or suffixes, based on whether they’re written before or following the words they modify. As prefixes, these letters could be either attached with or detached through the word. For instance, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but in addition such as “grandiloquent,” as well as “granular” (that could be written “g” above “l-r.”)
An attached “k” at the beginning of a word can be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” so “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and is the short form for Congress on the other hand. But a detached “k” written above a word is the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written more than a “b”, for instance, is read “contrib” and it is the brief type for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much exactly the same with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the termination of a term means “gram,” as in “program.” A detached “k” is short for “ical,” like in “medical.” And a“o” that is detached the spot of “ology,” as with “biology.”
These types may also be added together to produce longer terms.
“Biological” is created “b-i” followed by a detached “o-k.” This way, long, complex terms are paid off to 2 or 3 fast flicks regarding the pen, yet remain entirely legible to anybody who understands the Gregg system. Combined, the forms that are brief the abbreviation concept account fully for approximately half of Gregg’s benefit over longhand. Not merely will be the letters simple and simply joined up with, you will find fewer of those to publish.
The element that is final makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” That way, numerous expressions that are common be dashed off in some strokes without ever raising the pen through the web page. Each of that can be written individually with just one letter: “i,” written with a brief, straight, upward swing that slopes off to the right, represents “it;” “l,” a lengthy, horizontal, upward-facing curve, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be. as an example, the expression “it will be” consists of three common words” Phrasing lets you join all three of the letters in a single elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Here is “it will likely be” in the very first line, with “We have been” below it:
And you can find literally a large number of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. First and foremost, unlike brief types, they don’t require memorization that is much they’re the item of some easy guidelines.
By the right time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from his head office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into virtually every college, business and courthouse in the united kingdom. As he ended up being fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, study guides, mags, and shorthand versions of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a nationwide infrastructure of official certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the relevant skills of most professional shorthand authors. If you desired to be an professional secretary, you required a certification from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 terms each and every minute. In the event that you wished to be considered a court reporter, you needed to show you might compose an astonishing 225 terms each minute with much better than 98 % precision. Completely, huge numbers of people passed away through Gregg training additionally the Gregg certification system.
For pretty much a century, Gregg had been a crucial section of us culture. Since recently as the 1970s, virtually every senior school in the nation taught Gregg. Undoubtedly, every company school & most universities offered shorthand that is gregg-certified. But Gregg’s decrease started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, right after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices when you look at the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though there are a small number of “pen article writers” within the federal court system). The Dictaphone as well as other recording devices made note that is verbatim less and less essential in any office. Plus some individuals state improvements in women’s rights additionally played a job into the decrease of Gregg. The smartest, most talented women often ended up as secretaries or executive assistants and became gifted shorthand practitioners in a time when they were denied careers in fields like the law or medicine. Those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg in the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities.
The death that is real for Gregg, though, had been the arrival associated with laptop or computer within the 1980s. Even high-level professionals no much longer dictated letters for their secretaries; they had written them on the own on their desktop computers. Organizations which used to own ratings of skilled shorthand authors eliminated their pools that are steno. Today, i am maybe not alert to any senior high school that teaches Gregg. It is nearly impossible to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community colleges in new york, where Gregg article writers continue to be prized by some glove that is white businesses. The book that is only posted by the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill may be the Gregg handbook, a workplace guide which contains no reference to shorthand.
But, as being a technology for composing fast with pen and paper—still a simple ability for reporters like me—Gregg shorthand has not been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase a classic Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even although you simply learn the rules, Gregg will likely increase your note speed that is taking. With repetition and day-to-day usage, it is not unusual to achieve rates of 100 terms one minute or maybe more. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the perfect complement to the twenty-first Century technology of this smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. Despite the fact that, for quick stretches, i will compose 120 terms each minute, the typical United states now talks at significantly more than 150 terms one minute, so one thing is inevitably lost within the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need to worry. More often than not, once I circumvent to writing the storyline, i will count on my notes that are handwritten quick quotes and history information. However when I need a lengthier, verbatim estimate, i will utilize my notes as some sort of index to obtain the right area of the meeting, and touch there with my pen to listen to the playback. No example psychology research paper longer associated with dance that is forward/reverse a digital recorder when it is time for you to transcribe. It is a system that is almost flawless.